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  1. 32 Southern Bullfrog Photo by Ross Knowles

Southern Bullfrog, Eastern Banjo, Eastern Pobblebonk Frog

Limnodynastes dumerilii


  • Colour: its back ranges from grey, to olive-green, dark brown or black, with dark marbling or flecks. It has a pale yellow stripe running from under its eye to its arm, a dark band above this, and may also have a pale stripe running down its back. Its sides commonly have a purple or bronze sheen, mottled with black. Its belly is white and sometimes mottled with grey. Its back is warty and rough but its belly is smooth.
  • Distinctive feature: a prominent gland on the outer side of its hind leg (its shin) and a fleshy lump at the base of each hind foot.
  • Size: 5 cm to 8.5 cm. 


  • Call: males call when in water and concealed by floating vegetation, or less commonly from the water’s edge. When one frog starts to call, others will often join in. Their call is a single “bonk” or “plonk” which sounds like the string of a banjo being plucked, and is usually repeated every few seconds. Some individuals will produce a rapid series of “bonk-bonk-bonk”.
  • Diet: small invertebrates, for example flies and other small insects.
  • Movement: during dry periods it burrows into the ground and waits for rain, after which it emerges to feed and breed.
  • Breeding: males call to attract females from August though to April, most intensely after heavy rain. Females lay their eggs in a floating foam of bubbles (often attached to and concealed in vegetation) in the still waters of swamps, streams, dams and ponds.

What to Observe

  • Calling
  • Courting / mating
  • The appearance of eggs

ClimateWatch Science Advisor

We expect frogs to start calling and laying eggs earlier in the year as a result of climate change warming the Earth. They may also start appearing in new areas as warmer temperatures enable them to live in environments that were previously too cold for them. 

When To Look

  • From August through to April (breeding season).
  • Listen for males calling at night, particularly after rain. 

Where To Look

  • In south-eastern Australia, including southern Queensland, eastern and southern New South Wales, south-eastern South Australia, Victoria and Tasmania. 
  • In a wide range of habitats near still water, including woodlands, rainforests, farmlands and grasslands, but not in alpine areas or extremely arid zones. It is common in urban areas around garden ponds.

Southern Bullfrog, Eastern Banjo, Eastern Pobblebonk frog distribution map - IUCN Red List

Southern Bullfrog, Eastern Banjo, Eastern Pobblebonk frog distribution map - IUCN Red List

Where To Look

Maps of Habitat Suitability


Current probability
of occurrence
2070 probability
of occurrence (RCP 8.5)
Species range change from
current to 2070 probability

Above, the left and middle maps show the modelled habitat suitability for the the species under current and potential future climate conditions. The colours indicate the predicted habitat suitability from low (white) to high (dark red).

The future habitat suitability is modelled for the year 2070 under a climate change scenario that represents 'business as usual' (RCP 8.5). The map on the right shows how the range of the species might change between now and 2070, with orange areas indicating where the species might disappear, green areas where the species range might expand, and blue areas where the habitat is predicted to be suitable for the species now and in the future.

The models for this species were run in the Biodiversity and Climate Change Virtual Laboratory. Please note that while models can be very informative, they are only a representation of the real world and thus should always be viewed with caution. You can read more about the science behind these models here.



Barker, J, Grigg, GC and Tyler, MJ 1995. A Field Guide to Australian Frogs. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Sydney.

Cogger, HG 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia. Reed Books, Sydney.

  1. Search Species

  1. What Else?

    • Northern Banjo Frog / Northern Bullfrog (Limnodynastes terraereginae): has red colouration around its groin.
    • Giant Banjo Frog (Limnodynastes interioris): has a bright orange or yellow belly with no mottling.
    • Common Spadefoot Toad (Neobatrachus sudelli): doesn’t have the gland on the outer side of its hind legs. Giant Burrowing Frog (Heleioporus australiacus): doesn’t have the gland on the outer side of its hind legs.
    • Mallee Spadefoot Toad (Neobatrachus pictus): doesn’t have the gland on the outer side of its hind legs.
  1. Did You Know?

    The females have special flaps of skin on their fingers which are used to carry air bubbles from the surface of the water into the foam nest containing the eggs.

    There is so much variation in colour, size and call, that scientists have grouped this species into five subspecies.

  1. Listen to the Call